Saturday, 29 July 2017

Consumer Goods Marketing and Business-to-Business (Industrial) Marketing

Consumer goods marketers sell to individuals who consume the finished product. Businessto-business marketers sell to other businesses or institutions that consume the product in
tum as part of operating the business, or use the
product in the assembly of the final product they sell to consumers. Business-to-business marketers engage in more personal selling rather than mass advertising and are willing to make extensive adjustments in factors
such as the selling price, product
features, terms of delivery, and so forth.For the consumer goods marketer, the various marketing components are relatively
In addition, consumer goods marketers might employ emotional appeals and are facedwith the constant battle of getting their product into retail outlets.  

Local, Regional, National, International, and Global Marketers

As one would expect, the size and location of a company's market varies greatly. Local
marketers are
concerned with customers that tend to be clustered tightly around the marketer. The marketer is able to learn a great deal about the customer and make necessary
changes quickly
. Naturally, the total potential market is limited. There is also the possibility that a new competitor or environmental factor will put a local marketer out of business.
Regional marketers
cover a larger geographic area that may necessitate multiple production plants and a more complex distribution network. While regional marketers tend to
serve adjoining
cities, parts of states, or entire states, dramatic differences in demand may
exist, requiring extensive adjustments in marketing strategy.National marketers distribute their product throughout a country. This may involvemultiple manufacturing plants, a distribution system including warehouses and privately
owned delivery vehicles, and different versions of the marketing
"mix" or overall strategy.This type of marketing offers tremendous profit potential, but also exposes the marketer to
new, aggressive
competitors.International marketers operate in more than one country. As will become clear laterin this book, massive adjustments are normally made in the marketing mix in various countries. Legal and cultural differences alone can greatly affect a strategy's outcome. As the
U.S. market becomes more
and more saturated with U.S.-made products, the continued expansion into foreign markets appears inevitable.
marketing differs from international marketing in some very definite ways.Whereas international marketing means a company sells its goods or services in another
country, it
does not necessarily mean that the company has made any further commitments.
Usually the product is still
manufactured in the home country, sold by their people, and the
profits are taken back to that
country. In the case of Honda Motors, for example, it means
building manufacturing plants in the U.S., hiring
local employees, using local distributionsystems and advertising agencies, and reinvesting a large percentage of the profits back into 'the U.S.  

Friday, 28 July 2017

Mass Marketing, Direct Marketing, and Internet Marketing

Mass marketing is distinguished from direct marketing in terms of the distance betweenthe manufacturer and the ultimate user of the product. Mass marketing is characterized as
having wide separation and
indirect communication. A mass marketer, such as Nike, havery little direct contact with its customers and must distribute its product through various
retail outlets alongside its competitors. Communication is impersonal, as evidenced by its
national television and print advertising campaigns,
couponing, and point-of-purchase displays. The success of mass marketing is contingent on the probability that within the hugeaudience exposed to the marketing strategy.. there exist sufficient potential customers interested in the product to make ~he strategy worthwhile.  
Direct marketing establishes a somewhat personal relationship with the customer byfirst allowing the customer to purchase the product directly from the manufacturer and thencommunicating with the customer on a first-name basis. This type of marketing is experiencing tremendous growth. Apparently, marketers have tired of the waste associated withmass IParketing and customers want more personal attention. Also, modem mechanisms
coliecting and processing accurate mailing lists have greatly increased the effectiveness
of direct marketing. Catalogue companies (Spiegel,
J.e. Penney), telecommunications companies (Sprint), and direct mail companies (Publishers Clearing House) are example of direct
marketers. A
modified type of direct marketing is represented by companies that allow
of product by calling a toll-free number or mailing in an order card as part of an
 Although (officially), Intemet marketing is a type of direct marketing, it has evolved
so quickly and demanded the attention of so many companies that a separate section hereis 'varranted. Essentially, Intemet technology (which changes by the moment) has created
new way of doing business. In the Internet age, the way consumers evaluate and follow
on their purchase decisions has changed significantly. "Call now!" is no longer aneffective pitch. Consumers have control over how, when, and where they shop on the Internet. The Internet has all but eliminated the urgency of satisfying the need when the opportunity is presented. Internet marketing will b e discussed in detail in a later chapter.  

Profit Marketing Versus Nonprofit Marketing

As the terms connote, the difference between for-profit and nonprofit marketing is in their primary objective. For-profit marketers measure success in terms of profitability and their ability to pay dividends or pay back loans. Continued existence is contingent upon level of profits.Nonprofit institutions exist to benefit a society, regardless of whether profits areachieved. Because of the implicit objectives assigned to nonprofits, they are subject to anentirely different additional set of laws, notably tax laws. While they are allowed to generate profits, they must use these monies in specific way~ in order to maintain their nonprufit status. There are several other factors that require adjustments to be made in themarketing strategies for nonprofits.  

Thursday, 27 July 2017

Service Marketing Versus Goods Marketing

The distinction between services and goods products is not always clear-cuL In general,service products tend to be intangible, are often consumed as they are produced, are difficult to standardize because they require human labor, and may require the customer to participate in the creation of the service product.
Goods products tend to be just the opposite in terms of these criteria. Consequently,marketers of service products usually employ a marketing strategy quite different from that
of good
s marketers. For example, a local family physician creates tangibility by orovidingan environment. waiting room. examination rooms, diplomas on the walls, that convincespatients that they are receiving good health care. Conversely, coffee producers create iiltangibility in order to appear different from competitors.

Macromarketing Versus Micromarketing

The division of marketing into macromarketing and micromarketing is a fairly recent one.
the division was a result of the controversy concerning the responsibility of marketing. Should marketing be limited to the success of the individual firm, or should marketing consider the economic welfare of a whole society? Accepting the later, or "macro,"point of view dramatically changes the way marketing is carried out. In this light, everymarketing decision must be evaluated with regard to how it might positively or negatively
each person and institution operating in that society. In 1982, Bunt and Burnett surveyed the academic community in order to define more precisely the distinction between
and mircomarketing. 4 Their findings suggest that the separation depends upon "whatis being studied," "whether it is being viewed from the perspective of society or the firm,"and "who receives the consequences of the activity." Examples of macromarketing activities are studying the marketing systems of different nations, the consequences on society
certain marketing actions, and the impact of certain technologies on the marketing trans-action. The use of scanners in supermarkets and automatic teller machines in banking illustrates the last example. Micromarketing examples include determining how Nikon Steel
should segment its market, recommending how National Jewish Hospital should price theirproducts, and evaluating the success of the "Just Say No" anti-drug campaign.  

Thursday, 27 April 2017

27 April 2017 Current Affairs

India to host 18th World Road Meeting
The international Road Federation (IRF) on 26 April 2017 announced that India will host the 18th World Road Meeting (WRM 2017) which will be held on 13 November 2017. The theme of the World Road Meeting 2017 is “Safe Roads and Smart Mobility “ The Engines of Economic Growth”. The conference is expected to attend by the 4000 delegates across the World and will include plenary sessions with eminent and well-known speakers discussing important issues facing mobility sector.

 UP Govt to set up anti land mafia task force
The Yogi Adityanath government has set up an anti – land mafia task force in Uttar Pradesh. UP government ensure that the land mafia and the encroachers will not be spread and land or property grabbing can be stopped. The 4 tier task force would be headed by a principal secretary followed by Commissioner, DM and SDM in their respective areas. The UP govt has mentioned that the task force would soon submit a report from tehsil to the district and state level about such encroachments.

 India, Sri Lanka Sign MoU on Economic Cooperation
India and Sri Lanka Countries on 26 April, 2017 signed an MoU on economic cooperation. In the presence of PM Modi and his Sri Lankan counterpart Ranil Wickremesinghe. Modi earlier had comprehensive talks with the Lankan PM on ways to strengthen bilateral relations. The MoU proposes Indian investment in a port, oil tank farm, highways and railway projects in Sri Lanka.

 NASA launches super pressure Balloon from New Zealand
The National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) on 25 April 2017 successfully launched its football stadium sized and heavy lift Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) from Wanaka, New Zealand. The Balloon will float for 100 or more days at 1,10,000 feet (33.5 km) across the globe in the Southern Hemisphere’s mid-latitude band. It will observe a broad swath of the Earth’s atmosphere to detect the UV fluorescence from the deep space cosmic rays coming in the above.

 Dileep K. Nair receives Dr. B R Ambedkar International Foundation Kerala State Award
India’s youngest ever chancellor Dileep K. Nair, has received Dr. B.R. Ambedkar International Foundation Kerala State Award for the year 2016-17 for his excellent performance in the field of education. The 358 year old academician, who is currently the chancellor of the NEFTU in Arunachal Pradesh, was conferred with the award by Rajya Sabha Deputy Chairman P.J. Kurien.

 India’s Srishti Kaur wins Miss Teen Universe 2017
On 25 April, 2017 Srishti Kaur from India was crowned Miss Teen Universe 2017. The beauty Pageant event took place in Managua. The capital city of Nicaragua. Kur beat out 25 contestants from other parts of the world. Kaur also won the prize for the best national costume at the prestigious pageant. The costume featured a peacock, India’s national bird. The other two finalists were Ary Trava from Mexico and Samantha Pierre from Canada.

 Bollywood actor Vinod Khanna dies of Cancer
One of India’s most well-known Bollywood actors Vinod Khanna has died with suffering from Cancer. He was 70 years old. He is best remembered for his performance in films like Mere Apne, Mera Gaon Mera Desh,Gaddaar, Jail Yatra, Kuchhe Dhaage, Amar Akbar Anthony, Rajput, Qurbani, Dayavan and others. He was popularly hailed as one of the most handsome lead actors ever in Bollywood, along with Dharmendra, Rajesh Khanna and Shammi Kapoor.

26 April 2017 Current Affairs

Vani Jayaram gets Ghantasala National Award
The Versatile playback singer in South Indian Film Industry, Vani Jayaram was presented with the Ghantasala National Award. The award is instituted by the Ghantasala National Art Academy in Andhra Pradesh. The 71-year-old singer received the award from A. Ramalingeswara Rao. A high court Judge in Andhra Pradesh and R. Ananda Bhaskar, Rajya sabha Member from the congress party.

 Indo – French Naval Exercise “Varuna” Commences
The Indian Navy has began a joint maritime exercise with the French Navy at the Mediterranean Sea to further deepen combat coordination between the two Navies. Guided missile destroyer INS Mumbai, stealth frigate INS Trishul and fleet tanker INS Aditya are taking part in the ‘Varuna’ exercise which will continue till April 30. The ‘Varuna’ series of exercises began in 2000 and have grown into an institutionalized form of interaction between the two navies.

 MCC offers honorary life membership to “Sandhya Agarwal”
Sandhya Agarwal, former captain of the Indian women’s Test cricket Team has been offered honorary life membership of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in recognition of her distinguished service to the game. Sandhya Agarwal is from Indore, Madhya Pradesh. She has played 13 Tests and 21 ODIs from 1984 to 1995. After her retirement, she has been associated with cricket as a selector and coach, besides being a member of the BCCI’s women’s Committee.

 Central University for Divyangs to be setup in Uttar Pradesh
Union Government will set up a Central University for Divyangs in Uttar Pradesh. It was stated by HRD Minister prakash Javadekar while addressing the convocation function of Shakuntala Mishra national rehabilitation University, Lucknow. The Minister mentioned the University Grants Commission has been instructed to make arrangement for special training of instructors providing education to divyangs.

 World Intellectual Property Day April 26
World Intellectual Property Day  is observed on April 26 each year with a variety of events and activities worldwide. It aims to increase people’s awareness and understanding of intellectual property (IP). the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIFO) world together with various government agencies, non govt organizations, community groups and individuals to hold different events and activities to promote World Intellectual Property Day each year.

 India, Armenia sign 3 agreements
India and Armenia on 25 April, 2017 signed three agreements after vice president Hamid Ansari held a bilateral meeting with Armenian Prime Minister Karen Karapetyan in Armenia. The two countries signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU)  on peaceful uses of outer space, another MoU cooperation in youth matters and a programme of cultural cooperation for the years 2017-2020.

 NASA Astronaut Peggy Whitson sets a new space walk record
NASA Astronaut Peggy whitson on 24 April 2017 set a new US Record for most cumulative 650 days spent in space. With this Whitson surpassed Cosmonaut Jeff Williams record of 534 days, 4 hours and 48 minutes aboard the International space Station (ISS). With the recent extension of her stay at the ISS, the Expedition 51 Commander has five months to rack up another record.

 Northeast India’s Largest IT Hub Opens in Tripura
North east’s Sixth and largest hub for information technology has been inaugurated in Agartala, Tripura. The hub has been set up at a cost of Rs. 50 crore to boost employment and e-governance besides export of software technology. The hub is expected to create more employment opportunities for the youths and extend the e governance to cover all the people of the region.

 India wins 16 medals at US Open Karate Championship
India finished with three gold, two silver and 11 bronze medals at the US Open Karate Championship held in Las Vegas. Shaifali Agarwal, Abhishek, Sengupta won a gold medal, a silver in two different individual events. India also won a gold medal in the team event. The Indian team was led by Sensei Yashpal Singh Kalsi. The other members of the Indian contingent were Abhishek Sengupta, Rantej Singh, Harcharan Singh chowhan and Shaifali Agarwal.

 Bill Gates praises PM Modi for Swachh Bharat Mission
Microsoft Co-founder and the World’s richest person, Bill Gates has Praised PM Narendra Modi for the Swachh Bharat Mission. Bill Gated specially mentioned the mission’s aim of building 75 million toilets across India, and at present 30% of India’s villages are now open defecation free. Clean India started with 42% of Indians but today it achieved more than 60% successfully.

25 April 2017 Current Affairs

K. Viswanath wins Dadasaheb Phalke Award for 2016
Veteran filmmaker and actor Kasinadhuni Viswanath has been conferred Dadasaheb Phalke award for 2016 by the Ministry of Information and  Broadcasting. The award consists of Swarn Kamal (Golden Lotus). A cash prize of Rs.10 lakhs and a shawl. He has also won 5 National Awards, 20 Nandi Awards, 10 Filmfare Awards including Lifetime Achievement Award. Dadasaheb Phalke Award is conferred by the Union Govt for outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian Cinema.

 Prafulla  Samantra selected for Goldman Environmental Prize 2017
Top environmental activist Prafulla Samantra of Odisha has been selected for Goldman Environmental Prize or Green Nobel from Asia region for Championing the cause of State’s Dongria Kondh tribals and safeguarding their land and culture, Samantra, the sixth Indian to win the prize, had led a historic legal battle that protected the Niyamgiri Hills in Odisha. And safeguard the living area of Dongria kondh from massive destruction due to mining.

 25 April World Malaria Day 2017
World Malaria Day is all about celebrating the successes there have been in the drive to eradicate malaria from the world as well as raising awareness of the disease and its prevention. This year the World Health Organisation (WHO) has made “ending malaria for good” its theme for World Malaria Day 2017. A Tropical disease which is spread by infected female anopheles mosquitoes.

 Manpreet Kaur bags Gold at Asian Grand Prix Meet in China
Indian shot putter Manpreet Kaur has clinched a gold in the first leg of Asian Grand Prix Athletics Meet in Jinhua, China, Manpreet came up with the best throw of 18.86 meter, which has nearly one meter more than her earlier national record of 17.96 meters that she had set in 2015. With this performance, Manpreet also qualified for the IAAF World Championships to be held in August 2017 in London.

 India replaces Japan as No. ‘2’ LPG Importer
Import of LPG, which is mostly used as cooking fuel in India, during 2016-17 was 11 million tonnes. This marks a growth of 23% as compared to previous year. During the same period. Japan imported 10.6 million tonnes LPG, marking a 3.2% reduction as compared to previous year. In context of this news, it is to be noted that Japan is deliberately cutting back on usage of LPG as cooking fuel and is moving to cheaper alternatives such as Natural Gas. China has retained its position as world’s top LPG importer.

 India becomes World’s fifth largest military spender
As per figures revealed by Stockholm International peace Research Institute (SIPRI), India has become World’s fifth largest military spender in the year 2016. India’s military expenditure for 2016 was $ 55.9 billion, which marks 8.5% growth over 2015 figure. United States of America with $ 611 billion. China with $ 215 billion, and Russia with $ 69.2 billion.

24 April 2017 Current Affairs

National Panchayati Raj Divas – April 24
Every year April 24 is being observed as National Panchayati Raj (PR) Diwas Across the India. Amendment Act 1992 that came into force with effect from 24 April, 1993. Every year on this day Union Ministry of Panchayati Raj Organises, National Conference to commemorate the National panchayati Raj Divas. Best performing Gram Panchayats are conferred with Rashtriya Gaurav Gram Sabha Puraskar by the Union Ministry of Panchayati Raj.

 ‘Newton’ wins best film honour at Hong Kong International Film Festival
Bollywood film Newton has won the best film honour at the Hong Kong International Film Festival. The lead actor of the film is Raj Kumar Rao. Amit Masurkar directed “Newton” is a political  satire. It had its world premiere at the 67th Berlin Film Festival where it won the International Federation of Art Cinemas Award in its Forum Segment.

 Kailash Satyarthi honoured with PC Chandra Puraskar 2017
Nobel Laureate and social activist Kailash Satyarthi was given on 23 April, 2017 PC Chandra Puraskar (Award) for his global crusade against child slavery and exploitative child labour. The 63- year – old Satyarthi was handed over a citation, a trophy and a cash cheque 10 lakh rupees. Satyarthi, who shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 with Malala yousafzai of Pakistan.

 Nadal wins Monte Carlo Masters Singles Title
Rafael Nadal has won the Men’s singles title of Monte Carlo Masters Tennis Tournament. He was defeated Ramos vinolas on 23 April, 2017. With this Nadal claimed a record 10th Monte Carlo Masters Title. Earlier Bopanna and his partner Pablo Cuevas lifted the Monte Carlo Masters Doubles Title after defeating a hard fought three set win over Spain’s Feliciano Lopez and Marc Lopez in Monaco.

 “Kilkari” Mobile app Launched Haryana Government
Chief Minister of Haryana, Manohar Lal Khattar launched a mobile app as named “Kilkari” to awareness pregnant women & New born baby. Under this scheme Haryana Govt, Provide important information to maternity. Milkari app will mainly awareness women & Newborn baby health. Time Appropriate Audio messages will be sent via the app in the crucial stages of pregnancy, Childbirth and Child Care.